Ep 895 - Google Drive ##TOP##
Drop deformation and disintegration regimes have been studied in many contexts ranging from an impact on a solid surface or a liquid layer of varying thickness to a liquid drop suspended in air and hit by a propagating aerodynamic shock wave. As a counterpart, deformation and disintegration of an initially static drop of controlled shape and size sitting on an impulsively driven stiff membrane are explored here experimentally. A significant amount of collected experimental data is used to map the possible drop morphological changes along with the transitions between them. In order to elucidate the effects of impulse intensity, viscosity, surface tension and wetting, we measured the crown height and radius in the drop deformation regimes, as well as the drop detachment and breakup times along with probability density functions of the secondary droplets in the drop disintegration regimes. With the goal to convey the physical mechanisms behind these transient responses, the observations are interpreted with phenomenological models, scalings and estimates highlighting the rich multiscale physics of the impulse-driven drop phenomena.
Ep 895 - Google Drive
Particle migration in viscoelastic suspensions is vital in many applications in the biomedical community and the chemical/oil industries. Previous studies have provided insight into the motion of spherical particles in simple viscoelastic flows, yet the combined effect of more complex flow profiles and particle shapes is under-explored. Here, we develop approximate analytical expressions for the polymeric force and torque on an arbitrarily shaped particle in a second-order fluid, subject to a general quadratic flow field. This model is exact for the case when the first and second normal stress coefficients satisfy $\unicode[STIX]x1D713_1=-2\unicode[STIX]x1D713_2$. Under this assumption, we examine how particle shape alters cross-stream particle migration (i.e. lift) and particle orientation in both shear- and pressure-driven flows. In shear-driven flows, we observe that spheroidal particles adjust their orientation to align their longer axis along the vorticity direction, although significant deviations from slender-body theories occur for finite aspect ratios. In a slit-like pressure-driven flow, we identify scaling theories to quantify how the particle lift depends on shape for a wide variety of shapes. We find that prolate particles slowly transition to a log-rolling state as they approach the flow centre, with the lift initially being larger than that of an equal-volume sphere, but then becoming smaller as log-rolling emerges. The net effect is a smaller average migration speed for particles with larger aspect ratio. Lastly, we discuss future directions for experimental studies on particle dynamics as well as directions to extend the current work towards more complicated systems.
The evolution of buoyancy-driven homogeneous variable-density turbulence (HVDT) at Atwood numbers up to 0.75 and large Reynolds numbers is studied by using high-resolution direct numerical simulations. To help understand the highly non-equilibrium nature of buoyancy-driven HVDT, the flow evolution is divided into four different regimes based on the behaviour of turbulent kinetic energy derivatives. The results show that each regime has a unique type of dependence on both Atwood and Reynolds numbers. It is found that the local statistics of the flow based on the flow composition are more sensitive to Atwood and Reynolds numbers compared to those based on the entire flow. It is also observed that, at higher Atwood numbers, different flow features reach their asymptotic Reynolds-number behaviour at different times. The energy spectrum defined based on the Favre fluctuations momentum has less large-scale contamination from viscous effects for variable-density flows with constant properties, compared to other forms used previously. The evolution of the energy spectrum highlights distinct dynamical features of the four flow regimes. Thus, the slope of the energy spectrum at intermediate to large scales evolves from $-7/3$ to $-1$, as a function of the production-to-dissipation ratio. The classical Kolmogorov spectrum emerges at intermediate to high scales at the highest Reynolds numbers examined, after the turbulence starts to decay. Finally, the similarities and differences between buoyancy-driven HVDT and the more conventional stationary turbulence are discussed and new strategies and tools for analysis are proposed.
The time of day that nurses worked was identified as an important factor. Nurses working night shifts were almost 4 times more likely to report difficulties staying awake driving home, as compared with nurses who did not work during the night. Since sleep propensity/circadian drive for sleep is the greatest during the early morning hours, it is not surprising that nurses who left work between the hours of 02:00 and 06:00 reported struggling to stay awake almost half the time during their drive home. Given that both shift duration and time of work shift are problematic, the combination of long work hours and working at night make driving home particularly hazardous.
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It sounds like a firewall issue based on that error. Can you try logging in to drive.google.com from the machine running the Java script? Can that machine ping www.googleapis.com? What Internet restrictions does it have in place?
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