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Principles Of Cyber-Physical Systems (MIT Press) Book Pdf

A cyber-physical system (CPS) or intelligent system is a computer system in which a mechanism is controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms. In cyber-physical systems, physical and software components are deeply intertwined, able to operate on different spatial and temporal scales, exhibit multiple and distinct behavioral modalities, and interact with each other in ways that change with context.[1][2] CPS involves transdisciplinary approaches, merging theory of cybernetics, mechatronics, design and process science.[3][4][5] The process control is often referred to as embedded systems. In embedded systems, the emphasis tends to be more on the computational elements, and less on an intense link between the computational and physical elements. CPS is also similar to the Internet of Things (IoT), sharing the same basic architecture; nevertheless, CPS presents a higher combination and coordination between physical and computational elements.[6]

Principles of Cyber-Physical Systems (MIT Press) book pdf

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Examples of CPS include smart grid, autonomous automobile systems, medical monitoring, industrial control systems, robotics systems, and automatic pilot avionics.[2][7] Precursors of cyber-physical systems can be found in areas as diverse as aerospace, automotive, chemical processes, civil infrastructure, energy, healthcare, manufacturing, transportation, entertainment, and consumer appliances.[7]

Unlike more traditional embedded systems, a full-fledged CPS is typically designed as a network of interacting elements with physical input and output instead of as standalone devices.[3] The notion is closely tied to concepts of robotics and sensor networks with intelligence mechanisms proper of computational intelligence leading the pathway. Ongoing advances in science and engineering improve the link between computational and physical elements by means of intelligent mechanisms, increasing the adaptability, autonomy, efficiency, functionality, reliability, safety, and usability of cyber-physical systems.[8]This will broaden the potential of cyber-physical systems in several directions, including: intervention (e.g., collision avoidance); precision (e.g., robotic surgery and nano-level manufacturing); operation in dangerous or inaccessible environments (e.g., search and rescue, firefighting, and deep-sea exploration); coordination (e.g., air traffic control, war fighting); efficiency (e.g., zero-net energy buildings); and augmentation of human capabilities (e.g. in healthcare monitoring and delivery).[9]

Mobile cyber-physical systems, in which the physical system under study has inherent mobility, are a prominent subcategory of cyber-physical systems. Examples of mobile physical systems include mobile robotics and electronics transported by humans or animals. The rise in popularity of smartphones has increased interest in the area of mobile cyber-physical systems. Smartphone platforms make ideal mobile cyber-physical systems for a number of reasons, including:

For tasks that require more resources than are locally available, one common mechanism for rapid implementation of smartphone-based mobile cyber-physical system nodes utilizes the network connectivity to link the mobile system with either a server or a cloud environment, enabling complex processing tasks that are impossible under local resource constraints.[11] Examples of mobile cyber-physical systems include applications to track and analyze CO2 emissions,[12] detect traffic accidents, insurance telematics[13] and provide situational awareness services to first responders,[14][15] measure traffic,[16] and monitor cardiac patients.[17]

In industry domain, the cyber-physical systems empowered by Cloud technologies have led to novel approaches[23][24][25] that paved the path to Industry 4.0 as the European Commission IMC-AESOP project with partners such as Schneider Electric, SAP, Honeywell, Microsoft etc. demonstrated.

A challenge in the development of embedded and cyber-physical systems is the large differences in the design practice between the various engineering disciplines involved, such as software and mechanical engineering. Additionally, as of today there is no "language" in terms of design practice that is common to all the involved disciplines in CPS. Today, in a marketplace where rapid innovation is assumed to be essential, engineers from all disciplines need to be able to explore system designs collaboratively, allocating responsibilities to software and physical elements, and analyzing trade-offs between them. Recent advances show that coupling disciplines by using co-simulation will allow disciplines to cooperate without enforcing new tools or design methods.[26] Results from the MODELISAR project show that this approach is viable by proposing a new standard for co-simulation in the form of the Functional Mock-up Interface.

The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has identified cyber-physical systems as a key area of research.[27] Starting in late 2006, the NSF and other United States federal agencies sponsored several workshops on cyber-physical systems.[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]

These design principles also apply to cyber-physical systems. Engineers in many disciplines use modeling and simulation to gain design knowledge. For example, integrated circuit (IC) design technologies (VHDL, Verilog) are software-like and share the same benefits from these design characteristics and SOLID principles [8]. Hardware designs also apply the notion of test doubles through simulations and models or they provide a wood prototype before cutting metal.

The sentiment for release quality is not to let changes lay idle, waiting to be integrated. Instead, integrate changes quickly and frequently through successively larger portions of the system until the change arrives in an environment for validation. Some cyber-physical systems may validate in the customer environment (e.g., over-the-air updates in vehicles). Others proxy that environment with one or more mockups that strive to gain early feedback, as shown previously in Figure 5. The end-to-end platform matures over time, providing higher levels of fidelity that enable earlier verification and validation (V&V) as well as compliance efforts. For many systems, this early V&V and compliance feedback are critical to understanding the ability to manufacture or release products.

Abstract An action-oriented perspective changes the role of an individual from a passive observer to an actively engaged agent interacting in a closed loop with the world as well as with others. Cognition exists to serve action within a landscape that contains both. This chapter surveys this landscape and addresses the status of the pragmatic turn. Its potential influence on science and the study of cognition are considered (including perception, social cognition, social interaction, sensorimotor entrainment, and language acquisition) and its impact on how neuroscience is studied is also investigated (with the notion that brains do not passively build models, but instead support the guidance of action). A review of its implications in robotics and engineering includes a discussion of the application of enactive control principles to couple action and perception in robotics as well as the conceptualization of system design in a more holistic, less modular manner. Practical applications that can impact the human condition are reviewed (e.g. educational applications, treatment possibilities for developmental and psychopathological disorders, the development of neural prostheses). All of this foreshadows the potential societal implications of the pragmatic turn. The chapter concludes that an action-oriented approach emphasizes a continuum of interaction between technical aspects of cognitive systems and robotics, biology, psychology, the social sciences, and the humanities, where the individual is part of a grounded cultural system.

Our goal is to understand the principles of Perception, Action and Learning in autonomous systems that successfully interact with complex environments and to use this understanding to design future systems 350c69d7ab


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